Supporters of liquefied natural gas in the marine sector claim it has fewer greenhouse gas emissions than oil-based fuels, while cleaner alternatives such as biofuels, hydrogen, ammonia and methanol are still in developmental phases and with many challenges to overcome.
There are already more than 150 ships on the water powered by LNG and some oil majors such as Shell are developing delivery infrastructure and backing its cause. Qatar Petroleum recently announced a plan to spend big on LNG carriers, securing about 60% of the world's LNG carriers building capacity up to 202 – potentially over 100 news vessels -- with the ships able run on LNG too. But the fuel faces an unavoidable fact: it is still a hydrocarbon.
Hugo de Stoop, CEO of leading tanker operator Euronav, questioned LNG's long-term viability in an interview with S&P Global Platts. "People believe that it might be LNG but that is still a fossil fuel and if you account for the methane slippage in the supply chain, it is probably not a better fuel than fuel oil."
Platts Analytics Scenario Planning Service shares a similar view. "Using LNG does not deliver the emissions reductions required by the IMO's initial greenhouse gas strategy, and...using it could actually worsen shipping's climate impact," it noted.
The unit sees LNG growing to around 12% of total bunker fuel demand by 2040 from around 3% now, but with risks to the downside. Policy support in favor of LNG investment in shipping could easily flip to regulation against LNG as a fossil fuel.
The International Maritime Organization, which capped the amount of sulfur in fuel oil at 0.5% from January 1, 2020, from 3.5% previously, has a strategy of cutting carbon dioxide emissions per ship by 40% from 2008 levels by 2030. It then wants to cut the shipping industry's total greenhouse gas emissions by 50% by 2050.
Furthermore, continuing to invest in LNG infrastructure on ships and on shore might make it harder to transition to low-carbon and zero-carbon fuels in the future.
LNG growth options
Wartsila director Sigurd Jenssen was more upbeat. "It's a bit chicken and egg but as more vessels get fitted with LNG, there will be more infrastructure and then more vessels and it will for sure grow rapidly in the coming years," he told Platts. The energy equipment maker that has been supplying LNG engines for a long time doesn't see LNG as an ultimate solution but an important stepping stone given that it is "a fuel that is here today."
LNG will likely help itself. The largest use of LNG bunkering growth over the longer-term is in fueling vessels carrying LNG, such as with QP given Qatar's natural abundance of gas.
Areas where air quality is a bigger concern are also likely to take up more LNG to fuel their ships, in particular ferries and cruise ships, analysts suggest. But while there are still a good number of tankers, container ships and others being ordered capable of running LNG, the shadow of further regulatory penalties to clean up the sea looms large.
The conditions that will encourage LNG adoption as a marine fuel include if the vessels operate in areas subject to the 0.1% IMO limit rather than 0.5%, the vessels are large and fuel costs make up a large proportion of operating costs, and the vessels have predictable routes that can access the right fueling facilities.
Source: SP Global